Taxonomy: Fam. Brassicaceae// Genus: Cardamine// Species: Cardamine hirsuta L.
Determined according to the botanical key provided in The Flora of the Republic of Macedonia (Micevski, 1995).
Lifeform: Annual; Therophyte according to the Raunkiær system.
Distribution: Cosmopolitan (India Biodiversity Portal). Native to most of Europe, parts of Africa and Asia, introduced in North America, South America, Australia, parts of Africa and Asia (Plants of the World Online, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew).
Habitat: Found in open to semi-open habitats (pastures, rock terrains, river gorges, scrublands, openings and edges of forests, near roads in wet conditions. In dry terrains it grows as an early spring annual during the cooler and wetter conditions.
Flowering period: Spring. In favourable conditions plants flower as early as February.
Cardamine hirsuta L. India Biodiversity Portal. https://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/229070 [Accessed 02.03.2021].
Cardamine hirsuta L. Plants of the World Online, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:280380-1
Micevski, K. (1995). The Flora of the Republic of Macedonia Vol. I, Book 3. Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
Plants Profile for Cardamine hirsuta (hairy bittercress). https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=cahi3 [Accessed 02.03.2021]